Explanations on some of the clauses

The DAP (delivered at place) clause regards the delivery as complete when the goods are placed, ready for unloading by the buyer, on the arriving means of transportation at the designated destination. The seller bears all the risks that arise in connection with the transport to this place. It is thus more of a general clause in which the destination is defined as accurately as possible.

According to the DAT (delivered at terminal), the seller delivers the goods as soon as they are unloaded from the arriving means of transportation and made available to the buyer at a named terminal in the designated port or destination. "Terminal" can be any place, roofed or not. Whether it be a pier, a storage hall, a container depot or a highway, railway or air freight terminal.

DDP (delivered duty paid) represents the maximum obligation for sellers. The latter bears all costs and risk to the destination of the goods and is obliged to clear them for export and import, paying all the export and import fees as well as completing the customs formalities.

The EXW (ex works) clause represents the minimum obligation for sellers. Unlike the use of FCA, with EXW the seller has no obligation to the buyer to load the goods or to clear them for export. If the seller does do the loading, under the EXW clause, the buyer pays the risk and expense.